“Black beauty” reveals the early space impact of Mars

Martin Bizarro, an astrochemist at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, spent half a million dollars on the oldest and most valuable rocks in the world, and then ground them up. This rock is not from earth, it is from Mars. < / P > < p > Bizarro has finally been rewarded handsomely. The 4.4 billion year old “black beauty” meteorite, discovered in Western Sahara in 2011, weighs only 15 grams. His team has revealed asteroid impacts and volcanic eruptions throughout almost the entire history of Mars. < p > < p > on November 16, Bizarro and his colleagues published a study in the United States that Mars experienced an impact early in history, and then everything was calm, based on the age of 51 zircon crystals found in meteorites. The zircon crystals are likely to have been formed at the high temperature of the impact, most of which were dated 4.5 billion years ago, indicating the time when the planet hit Mars, and since then Mars seems relatively calm. This finding is consistent with recent doubts about the so-called “late heavy impact” on Mars. When scientists analyzed the rocks brought back by Apollo astronauts for the first time, the data seemed to indicate that there were several devastating impacts on the moon nearly 4 billion years ago. The solar system model shows that at that time, fluctuations in the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn stirred the asteroids, causing them to rush into the interior of the solar system. However, subsequent reanalysis revealed that many lunar rocks were formed by one impact, while others occurred 4.3 billion years ago. This shows that the impact did not surge, but gradually decreased over time. < / P > < p > at the same time, updated computer models show that the giant planets moved to their current orbit much earlier, about 4.56 billion years ago, at the beginning of the formation of the solar system, which triggered an early violent impact and has since weakened systematically. Desmond Moser, a geochronologist at Western University of Canada, who was not involved in the study, said the study further confirmed this view, saying that the work provided a “convincing picture” of the history of Mars. < / P > < p > the early impact recorded by the zircon crystals found by the team occurred at two distinct peaks only 30 million years apart, which is indirect evidence of the movement of gas giant planets at that time. Nicole Zellner, a lunar chemist at Albine college who was not involved in the study, said that even when Jupiter and Saturn did not migrate, there were a lot of protoplanetary debris flying around in the early solar system. < / P > < p > in fact, new simulations show that during this period of time, a large amount of matter flies around the solar system, and it may even transport complex molecules, that is, chemicals that breed life for the earth and other planets. < / P > < p > even if Bizarro’s team can’t explain the cause of the early impact, “black beauty” has shown scientists what it has brought: a planet rich in water. At the end of last month, the Bizzaro team published research results that they inferred that the oxygen content of Mars increased sharply 4.4 billion years ago, which seems to be explained only by the presence of water, possibly by water rich asteroids. “The water is either already there, or it comes with the impact.” Bizarro said. Developed a “plug and play” solar power generation scheme, and “5B” won a $12 million round a financing