Black holes even have “heartbeat”? Exploring the rhythm hidden in the night sky

On April 10, 2019, the first black hole photo was released, and for the first time, human beings have visually observed black holes. “Mirror” is a supermassive black hole, located at the core of M87, an elliptical galaxy, about seven billion times the mass of the sun. This photo is the first direct image of black hole released after 2 years of data processing based on the observation data of EHT for 10 consecutive days in April 2017. Since the observation is performed by eht using electromagnetic waves that are invisible to the naked eye, the color of the image is false. As early as 2007, scientists used the European Space Agency’s XMM Newton satellite to find the black hole named re j1034+396 for the first time. Its X-ray radiation has a periodic shock signal of about an hour. After that, the signal was interrupted because the observation path was blocked by the sun. In 2018, 11 years later, scientists used XMM Newton satellite, nuclear spectrum telescope array satellite and Swift satellite to conduct joint observation on the black hole again, and found that the X-ray shock signal still exists and is stronger than before. The black hole is produced by gravitational collapse after the mass of the star is exhausted by the fusion reaction. Black holes have a lot of gravity, so big that even light can’t escape. The powerful gravity draws the surrounding matter to the black hole all the time, and is eventually absorbed by the black hole. In the process of falling into the black hole, matter will form a disk like structure, and release a lot of energy in a small space around the black hole, accompanied by rhythmic and periodic vibration signals, as if it were a heartbeat. The “heartbeat” of black holes carries key information about the physical scale and structure near the horizon of black holes, which helps scientists understand their volume and space. Generally speaking, the “jet” observation is carried out through X-ray, infrared and radio waves in various bands; while the observation of “accretion disk” is through X-ray, ultraviolet and visible light. Through the information carried by different wavelengths of light, scientists can study black hole systems. Now scientists use “multi band telescope” to observe black holes. The observation of black hole “heartbeat” belongs to one of the indirect means of observing black holes. Because of the gravity of black holes, scientists can also infer the existence of black holes by the interaction between black holes and surrounding environment. General relativity holds that there is interaction among space, time and gravity. Large mass objects like black holes can distort the space around them and affect the orbit of stars around them. If a black hole and a star form a binary system, under the action of black hole gravity, the gas mass of the star flows into the black hole, and the sudden high temperature will cause the ray generation in various bands. At this time, scientists can find the existence of black holes through observation of the orbit of the star and the accretion disk. If two black holes form a binary system, the two black holes will eventually merge into a new black hole in the “relative killing”. The combination of black holes will emit strong gravitational waves, which can be used as evidence for scientists to judge the existence of black holes. On September 14th, 2015, scientists successfully observed gravitational waves directly at LIGO gravitational wave observatory for the first time, which also provided the first observation evidence for the existence of black hole twin stars. It is found that the observation of black holes has a great effect on the development of theoretical physics. According to the probability, the galaxy should have produced one million star class black holes in the past 10 billion years, but the number of black holes that have been discovered is only two digits. Xiaomi new machine real machine exposure center dig hole screen design or high color thousand yuan machine

Author: zmhuaxia