Can alien life travel through the stars? Bacteria can survive at least three years in extreme space environments

Imagine microscopic life forms, such as bacteria, that travel through space and land on another planet. Bacteria that find the right conditions for survival may start to multiply again, triggering life on the other side of the universe. This hypothesis, known as panspecialism, supports the possibility of microbes migrating between planets and distributing life in the universe. < / P > < p > a new study shows that bacteria can survive extreme radiation and temperature fluctuations in the space environment for at least three years, land on another planet and start breeding there. It also provides a way to study the origin of life on earth. < / P > < p > the tanopo space experiment was carried out jointly by Tokyo Pharmaceutical University and Japan Aerospace Research and development agency to study the possibility of natural transport of microorganisms between planets. < / P > < p > researchers placed a special bacterium outside the international space station, 400 kilometers from earth, in a vacuum, exposed to intense ultraviolet radiation, and experiencing a huge temperature difference between 29 degrees Celsius and – 42 degrees Celsius. Only a few percent of this particular bacteria survive in space. They are originally attached to the dust floating in the earth’s atmosphere, and are highly resistant to radiation. After three years of “living” outside the international space station, the surviving bacteria were brought back to earth for cultivation and reproduction. The results were published in the August issue of the Swiss journal. < / P > < p > the origin of life on earth is the biggest mystery that puzzles human beings. Scientists have completely different views on this issue. “Some people think that life is very rare and only happens once in the universe, while others think that life can happen on every suitable planet. If “panspecialism” is possible, life must be born much more frequently than we thought, “said Dr. Akihiko Yama, Honorary Professor of pharmacy in Tokyo, who led the experiment. Pan species theory is a long-term controversial hypothesis. The hypothesis assumes that all kinds of life forms exist in the whole universe, and spread and multiply by meteors and asteroids. < / P > < p > in the hypothesis related to panspecies, life can move and survive in the universe. After being hit, some planets eject into the universe, carrying the remains of life like bacteria of polar organisms. These creatures may enter a state of dormancy, completely static, before the debris moves to other planets. When these creatures enter a suitable planet, they will start to move and start evolution. Panspecialism does not explain the origin of life, it only explains the possibility of maintaining life. Stephen Hawking, a famous British physicist, is a supporter of Pan species theory. Hawking once said that life can spread from one planet to another on a meteor, or from one galaxy to another. It has even been argued that this is why life exists on earth, despite widespread criticism. In 2018, Yama and his team tested the presence of microbes in the atmosphere. Using airplanes and scientific balloons, the researchers found Deinococcus, which floats 12 kilometers above the earth. < / P > < p > however, although scientists already know that kiyosarci form huge colonies and are resistant to environmental hazards such as ultraviolet radiation, can they resist long enough in space to support the possibility of Pan species theory? < / P > < p > the researchers exposed samples of different thicknesses to the space environment for one, two, or three years by placing dry colonies of S. mirabilis on an exposure panel outside the ISS, and then tested their survival rates. < / P > < p > three years later, the researchers found that all the colonies larger than 0.5 mm in diameter survived in space. Observation showed that although the bacteria on the surface of the colony died, it created a protective layer for the bacteria below, ensuring the survival of the colony. Using survival data for one, two and three years of exposure, the researchers estimate that colonies larger than 0.5 mm can survive 15 to 45 years on the ISS. < / P > < p > the design of the experiment allows researchers to infer and predict that a population of 1 mm in diameter may survive for up to eight years in outer space conditions. “The results show that S. radiodurans can survive the journey from earth to Mars, and vice versa – months or years in the shortest orbit,” Yama said < / P > < p > to date, this experiment provides the most optimistic estimate of the survival of bacteria in space. Previous experiments have shown that bacteria can survive in space if blocked by rocks, but this new study is the first to confirm that bacteria can survive in space in the form of aggregates, and is the first long-term space study. Other previous experiments have shown that spores can survive in space without ultraviolet radiation, and the latest experiment is the first to confirm that microorganisms can survive in space environment. The experimental results show that living things may move through space alive, which helps to study the hypothesis that life on earth comes from other planets, Yama said. His team hopes to do the same kind of experiment in the Van Allen radiation belt outside the earth, so that it can withstand stronger radiation tests. The Van Allen belt is a radiation belt composed of high-energy particles. The inner zone is 650-6300 km above the earth, and the outer zone is 10000-65000 km above the earth. High energy particles in Van Allen band are harmful to manned spacecraft and satellites. < / P > < p > however, scientists say that while we are one step closer to proving the “panspecies theory,” microbial migration depends on other processes, such as jetting and landing, in which bacterial survival still needs to be evaluated. Continue Reading865 optimization is different? These mobile phones should teach you a lesson!