China’s Quantum Science and technology accelerates the integration of heaven and earth

Recently, the construction project of the Institute of quantum information and quantum technology innovation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, undertaken by the eighth Engineering Bureau of China Construction, has been fully resumed. Photo by Huang Bohan < / P > < p > on November 2, staff of information and communication branch of State Grid Hangzhou power supply company inspected quantum communication equipment in the communication room. Photo by Long Wei < / P > < p > there is a “quantum road” in Hefei high tech Zone, Anhui Province. More than 20 quantum affiliated enterprises are densely distributed along the 2-kilometer Yunfei road. The original quantum is one of them. Zhang Hui is the vice president of Hefei Benyuan Quantum Computing Technology Co., Ltd. He used to run around the country to raise money. In the past month, all kinds of capital have taken the initiative to find the door. “There were 30 investment institutions all at once, and we finally chose 11.” Zhang Hui told our reporter. < p > < p > it is also the government departments at all levels to find the source quantum. “Many departments have come to investigate, discuss and study industrial policies, and help enterprises solve practical difficulties.” ‘it’s exciting for him,’ Mr. Zhang said. Zhang Hui said that on October 16, the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held the 24th collective study on the research and application prospects of quantum science and technology, which promoted the strategic planning and forward-looking layout of China’s Quantum Science and technology development, and created a better development environment for quantum technology. The application of quantum technology has ushered in an important period of development opportunities. The development of quantum science and technology is of great scientific significance and strategic value, and the international competition in the field of quantum science and technology is increasingly fierce. In recent years, developed countries in Europe and the United States have launched strategic plans in the field of quantum science and technology. At present, China has the scientific and technological strength and innovation ability in the field of quantum science and technology. < / P > < p > quantum communication is based on the principle of quantum entanglement, that is, two entangled quanta are like “telepathy”. No matter how far apart one quantum state changes, the other will change. The important reason why quantum communication has been paid attention to is that it can realize “heaven knows the earth, you know me”. At present, the application of quantum communication includes quantum key distribution and quantum teleportation. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is an absolutely secure communication method in principle. In the process of quantum key transmission, eavesdroppers cannot eavesdrop and leave traces. < p > < p > in the field of quantum communication, China has been in the leading position in the world. On October 20, at a press conference of the State Council’s information office, the relevant person in charge of the Ministry of science and technology said that during the 13th Five Year Plan period, a number of major achievements in high and new technology have emerged in China. In terms of quantum information technology, “Mozi” and “Beijing Shanghai trunk line” experiments have built the first prototype of quantum communication network integrating heaven and earth. < p > < p > in August 2016, China successfully launched the world’s first quantum science experiment satellite “Mozi”, which took the lead in realizing high-speed satellite ground quantum communication in the world, laying a foundation for the construction of an integrated space-time quantum secure communication and scientific experiment system. In June 2020, the Chinese Academy of Sciences announced that “Mozi” quantum science experimental satellite has realized entanglement based quantum key distribution for the first time in the world. In this experiment, the scientists established optical links with two ground stations, Nanshan station in Urumqi, Xinjiang and Delingha station in Qinghai Province, while crossing the border of Mozi. Quantum entanglement and key generation were established between the two stations over 1120 km on the ground. Another important role in China’s integrated quantum communication network is the “Beijing Shanghai trunk line”. In September 2017, the world’s first quantum secure communication trunk line – “Beijing Shanghai trunk line” was officially opened. The “Beijing Shanghai trunk line” has a total length of more than 2000 kilometers, passing through Hefei, Jinan and other major cities along the line, with a total of 32 quantum communication nodes. Another important application of quantum technology is quantum computing. Pan Jianwei, executive vice president of the University of science and technology of China and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, believes that “in the field of quantum computing, China as a whole is at the same level as developed countries.” Compared with traditional computers, quantum computers have unique advantages. In traditional computer, a bit can only be one state of 0 or 1 at a certain time, but in quantum computer, due to the existence of quantum superposition state, one qubit can record 0 and 1 states at the same time. Therefore, quantum computers have the potential of computing power far beyond traditional computers. < p > < p > quantum computer research and development is a hot field of international scientific and technological competition. At the end of 2019, Chinese scientists cooperated with German and Dutch scientists to realize the first Bose sampling quantum computation of 20 photon input 60 × 60 interference circuit, which greatly broke the world record in four key indicators. < p > < p > in October this year, the University of science and technology of China announced that the University’s scientific research team, in cooperation with scientists from the United States and Germany, has observed intensity compression on single photon source devices with high purity, high resolution and high efficiency. This is the first time that scientists have directly observed the intensity compression in the system through 20 years’ efforts since the realization of single photon source in 2000, which has laid the foundation for precise measurement based on single photon source and is an important progress in the field of quantum precision measurement. Where is the breakthrough of quantum technology in the future? Xue Qikun, vice president of Tsinghua University and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, believes that when deploying the development of quantum science and technology, we should consider the cooperation of industry, University and research, and the close combination from basic research to application, which can improve efficiency and speed up research and development. < / P > < p > on November 3. “Quantum information” has been written into the plan: “aiming at the frontier fields of artificial intelligence, quantum information, integrated circuits, life and health, brain science, biological breeding, aerospace science and technology, deep earth and deep sea, and implement a number of forward-looking and strategic national major science and technology projects.” The plan puts forward: “formulate an action plan for strengthening the country through science and technology, improve the new national system under the condition of socialist market economy, fight the battle of key core technologies, and improve the overall efficiency of the innovation chain”; and “formulate and implement strategic scientific plans and scientific projects to promote the optimal allocation and resource sharing of scientific research forces of scientific research institutes, universities and enterprises.” In January this year, the Ministry of science and technology, the national development and Reform Commission and other five departments jointly issued the “National Science and technology plan to highlight and support important original directions”, and “Quantum Science” was among the supported. On November 3, the 2020 World Computer Conference opened in Changsha, Hunan Province. Wang Zhijun, Vice Minister of the Ministry of industry and information technology, said that it would cultivate and develop new kinetic energy, lay out frontier fields such as quantum computing, play the role of market driving, drive upstream with downstream, and improve the advanced computing innovation system. < / P > < p > many places have increased their investment in the field of quantum science and technology. In 2019, Jinan City of Shandong Province proposed to provide financial support for quantum enterprises in terms of equipment purchase, project research and development, and talent team introduction, with a maximum support of 100 million yuan. < / P > < p > in order to enhance its advantages in the field of quantum information, Beijing Municipality, together with several academic institutions, established the Beijing Institute of quantum information science three years ago. Chang Kai returned from overseas and joined the Institute as a researcher. Chang Kai said, “the Research Institute’s scientific research funding is very strong, and researchers can build world-class laboratories according to their own ideas.” < / P > < p > in June, it was put forward that “the quantum communication network should be arranged in advance, the application of quantum communication information security encryption service should be explored, the confidential communication trunk network from Chongqing to Beijing, Shanghai and other places should be built, and new application scenarios such as quantum security authentication and quantum encryption terminals should be gradually expanded.” < p > < p > put forward in July: “promote the construction of commercial networks such as the trunk line between quantum communication cities and the metropolitan area network of central cities, and create a benchmark for the commercialization of quantum communications.” < p > < p > published in September, the construction of a shared research platform in the field of quantum information was listed as a strong foundation project of “new infrastructure”. It is proposed to promote the application and demonstration of quantum information industry in an all-round and diversified way, and explore the promotion and application of quantum information in important industries and fields of national economy and people’s livelihood such as government affairs, finance, electric power, national defense, etc < / P > < p > at present, the speed of the transformation of theoretical research results of quantum science and technology to practical and engineering is accelerating, and more and more enterprises participate in the development of quantum science and technology. Recently, Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province has used quantum armor. In the overload control project of Xiaoqing Avenue, Xiaoshan district introduces quantum cryptography technology to encrypt and protect the core business data with quantum security, effectively ensuring the end-to-end data encryption transmission. This is a typical case of the industrialization of quantum technology. Compared with traditional data encryption, quantum key is a high-quality key based on the randomness principle of quantum physics, and the key has higher security. It is Zhejiang Jiuzhou Quantum Information Technology Co., Ltd. Huang Xiang, vice president of Kyushu quantum, told our reporter: “at this stage, quantum communication and other quantum security technologies are the longest studied and most practical technologies in Quantum Science and technology. They have been successfully commercialized and are developing in the direction of integrating various business applications. Quantum communication technology has been applied to key information infrastructure, smart city and other fields < p > < p > on October 14, Hainan Province signed the “satellite earth integrated” quantum secure communication network project. Quantum secure communication network will provide high-level security services for Hainan free trade port in government affairs, finance, transportation, energy and other fields. The project will also build a practical quantum satellite ground station in Wenchang City to realize the docking with “Mozi”, so as to connect the quantum secure communication network around the island to the national backbone network, and realize the safe cross domain data circulation between Hainan, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and other important cities. Di Yunzhu, vice president of Guoke quantum communication network Co., Ltd., who participated in the signing of the contract, said, “quantum security application products and solutions for enterprises and the public will continue to be launched, such as quantum cryptography cloud, quantum data center, quantum data storage, quantum identity authentication, quantum mobile phone, quantum video conference and so on.” < p > < p > in the financial field, quantum communication is also widely used. At present, many banks, securities, futures, funds and other financial institutions have begun to introduce quantum communication technology in data center backup, online banking real-time transfer and so on. Compared with quantum communication, the practicability of quantum computing needs to be improved. However, quantum computing has a good prospect in the fields of cryptanalysis, weather forecast, petroleum exploration, drug design and so on. It is considered to be the key driving force of the next generation information revolution. < p > < p > on September 12, the superconducting quantum computing cloud platform, which was completely independently developed by Benyuan quantum, was officially opened to global users. This platform provides graphical programming and code programming, and develops typical quantum programming applications such as complex network sorting and handwritten digit recognition. < / P > < p > “the social recognition of quantum computing is getting higher and higher, and the pace of its application is also accelerating.” But quantum computing still has a long way to go, Zhang said. He predicted that it would take at least 10 years for quantum computing to be applied on a large scale. < / P > < p > although it will take time for large-scale applications, many enterprises are still stepping up the deployment of quantum computing in order to take the lead