Chinese researchers reveal the genome regulation mechanism of human brain evolution

Original title: Chinese researchers reveal the genome regulation mechanism of human brain evolution

Kunming Institute of zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Kunming Institute of zoology, CAS), in cooperation with Peking University and Academy of mathematics and Systems Sciences, has produced high-precision three-dimensional genomic map resources of non-human primates for the first time, and discovered human specific chromatin structure and brain development regulatory elements through cross species and multi omics analysis, providing a basis for elucidating human brain development It provides a new idea and evidence for the evolution mechanism of human beings.

Relevant research results were published online recently in the international top journal Cell.

“All human organs, including the brain, are formed through developmental processes. Among them, the unique pattern of human brain development is due to the accumulation of functional mutations in the genome in the process of evolution Su Bing, a researcher at Kunming Institute of zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that rhesus monkeys are closely related to humans and are ideal animal models for the study of human brain origin, development mechanism and brain diseases.

Through interdisciplinary cooperation, the research team carried out the research on 3D genome of brain development across species. First, they used the whole genome chromatin spatial conformation capture technology to construct a high-resolution 3D genome map of the fetal brain of Chinese macaque at the peak of neural development. This is the highest resolution 3D genome map of primate brain including human, with a resolution of 1.5kb, which can analyze the spatial organization of genome in brain development with high precision.

At the same time, the researchers also analyzed the transcriptome map, chromatin open region map and the distribution map of chromatin anchoring protein CTCF in the fetal brain of rhesus monkey, constructed the fine spatial conformation of chromatin in the fetal brain of rhesus monkey for the first time, identified the chromatin conformations at different scales, including chromatin compartment, chromatin topological domain and chromatin ring, and the role of genome in brain development Regulatory elements play an important role.

By integrating with published public data, researchers conducted cross species 3D genome comparison among human, macaque and mouse, and found many human specific chromatin structures, with a total number of 1765. These regulatory patterns of human specific chromatin structure reveal that brain development evolved a more sophisticated transcriptional regulatory network in human ancestors.

In addition, the research team also found that many human specific mutations in the genome may lead to the generation of new transcription factor binding sites in human brain development, and the formation of human specific advanced chromatin structure. (reporter Hu Yuanhang)

(editor in chief: Zhao Zhuqing, LV Qian)