Does space flight affect health? NASA reports new findings in cell

As the world’s leading academic publishing house in the whole science field, cell Publishing House cooperates with the youth innovation promotion association of Chinese Academy of Sciences to set up a column of “youth Promotion Association review” in order to enhance academic interaction and promote international exchange. Huang Tao, associate researcher of Shanghai Institute of nutrition and health, Chinese Academy of Sciences and member of youth innovation promotion association of Chinese Academy of Sciences, published a review on the papers in cell. < / P > < p > human beings have always had the dream of flying into the sky. Until the advent of spaceships, space flight became a reality. However, it is still unknown whether humans can safely fly in space and what molecular effects space flight will have on human body. Only by solving the safety problem of space flight can long-distance space travel become possible. < / P > < p > in order to systematically and comprehensively reveal the impact of space flight on human physiology, NASA has carried out a series of multi omics studies, including 4 human cell models, 11 mouse tissues, 2 human tissues, 2 mouse strains, astronaut blood and urine collected from the space mission from 2006 to 2017, and the previous NASA twin study [1]. < p > < p > in this article published on cell on November 25, 2020 [2], NASA’s afshin Beheshti and his collaborators found that: firstly, the effect of space flight on the cells in vitro is greater than that on the whole organ, which indicates that tissue complexity plays an important role in responding to space related pressure; secondly, liver has more differential gene and protein expression changes than other organs Finally, we analyze how the cellular and cellular components of the liver, which are the key components of the organism, play a key role in maintaining homeostasis and homeostasis. The data used in this paper are stored in NASA gene lab. The authors compared the number of different molecules in all samples from space flight and ground control in gene laboratory, and found that the response of human cells and hair follicle cells in vitro to space flight was the largest. Among the 10 kinds of mouse tissues analyzed, soleus muscle, extensor digitorum longus and liver had the largest number of differentially expressed genes. Low methylation and high expression were found in extensor digitorum longus and liver. This is consistent with previous studies [3]. The reduced muscle load due to microgravity is an important driving force for gene regulation, which can affect the transcriptional response to space flight. The authors conducted gene enrichment analysis on various data sets, and found that mitochondrial related function was the main abnormal pathway of space flight. Different species, different tissues and different levels of performance are very consistent. In all organs, the mitochondria of liver are the most active; in all muscle tissues, the mitochondria of soleus and extensor digitorum longus are the most active. By comparing space flight and ground twins, we found that mitochondrial dysfunction may alter metabolism, interfere with mitochondrial gene expression and activate integrated stress response through mitochondrial pathway. GSEA analysis before < / P > < p > found that immune related pathway is also an important abnormal pathway in space flight. In the cell model, we found that the expression of immune related pathways was up-regulated in the space flight group. At the epigenetic level, there were significant differences in immune related pathways between the space flight group and the control group. Interestingly, vitamin D levels decreased and inflammatory factors VEGF-1, IGF-1, IL-1 α, IL-1 β, and IL-1ra increased during space flight, but when the astronauts returned to the ground, the levels of these molecules returned to normal. The third type of abnormality indicated by GSEA analysis was lipid metabolism. The authors found that the lipid metabolism gene pathway was up-regulated in liver and kidney, and down regulated in eye and adrenal gland. When astronauts fly in space, the total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein are up-regulated, while the high-density lipoprotein is down-regulated. When they returned to the ground, lipid metabolism returned to normal. In the liver, many pathways related to fibrosis are significantly up-regulated. In muscle, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid metabolism are down regulated. The circadian rhythm, olfactory function, extracellular matrix and other functions will also be affected during space flight. In all cell and tissue models except human T cells, the cell cycle pathway is up-regulated. In all organs except the liver, the circadian pathway is up-regulated. < / P > < p > in general, this work explores how humans adapt to space flight by integrating multiple sets of scientific data. Mitochondrial dysfunction is the main risk of space flight. The results of this study can guide the nutrition and drug intervention of astronauts, thus increasing the feasibility of long-term manned space missions. When planning future human missions to the moon and Mars, we should consider the impact of space flight on mitochondria and establish a complete space health risk model. < / P > < p > space flight will have an impact on human physiology. In order to reveal the molecular mechanism of physiological changes caused by space flight, we analyzed biomedical maps from 59 astronauts and data from hundreds of space samples from NASA gene laboratory by using multi omics and system biology analysis methods to determine the response of transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and epigenetic level to space flight. The whole pathway analysis of multi group data showed that mitochondrial process, innate immunity, chronic inflammation, cell cycle, circadian rhythm and olfactory function were significantly enriched. Importantly, NASA’s twin study provides a platform to confirm some of our major findings. Evidence of mitochondrial function changes and DNA damage was found in urine and blood metabolism data collected from the astronaut cohort and NASA twin studies, suggesting that mitochondrial stress is a consistent phenotype of space flight. Huang Tao, associate researcher, Institute of nutrition and health, Shanghai Institute of life sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, once engaged in postdoctoral research in the Department of genetics and genomics, ICAM Medical College, Mount Sinai, USA. His research interests include computational biology, network analysis and machine learning, with more than 8000 citations. He is a highly cited author of big data research. He has served as the editorial board or guest editor of more than 25 magazines, and the reviewer of more than 120 magazines. He has edited the methods in Molecular Biology series, computational systems biology – Methods and protocols and precision medicine – Methods and protocols. < p > < p > the youth innovation promotion association of CAS was established in June 2011. It is an innovative measure for the comprehensive training of young scientific and technological talents by CAS. It aims to unite and unite the young scientific and technological workers of the whole academy through effective organization and support, broaden academic vision, promote mutual exchange and interdisciplinary, improve the organizational ability of scientific research activities, and cultivate a new generation of academic technology The leader. American companies begin to give up R & D: who should pay for corporate research?