From ARPANET to IPFs: a brief history of distributed storage technology

Until 1989, Tim Berners Lee, a gifted programmer and contemporary Internet founder, published a paper. In the paper, Tim Berners Lee creatively proposed the three cornerstones of the Internet. < / P > < p > after two years of development, in 1991, HTTP first appeared on the historical stage – http / 0.9 version. Http / 0.9 is extremely simple, with only one command get. According to the protocol, the server can only respond to HTML strings, but not other formats. When the server finishes sending, it will close the TCP connection. From the present point of view, it is so simple and simple. However, this small change has opened a long dust laden door. At the beginning, the file delivery mode of < / P >, which is designed to be one-to-one server, will be put on different servers. Because of the limitation of the FTP server’s bandwidth and the server’s download speed, some users may have a sharp decrease in the speed of downloading files. Due to the current network file transmission still relies on HTTP protocol, so network stuck, delay and other phenomena still occur from time to time. Secondly, if the server is not opened, all the data will be lost. The data of all kinds of data gates are basically omitted from the centralized server and sold. < p > < p > 14 years after HTTP unified Internet, BitTorrent protocol was born in 2003. BitTorrent protocol is a P2P File Protocol Based on TCP / IP protocol. BitTorrent users download various video, music and text files to local storage, and then share “seeds” with other users. As a protocol designed for peer-to-peer file sharing, BitTorrent can upload resources to the network, and anyone can download resources on the network. The more people download resources, the faster the speed. Due to its convenience, BitTorrent quickly swept the world. At its peak, the bandwidth of BitTorrent was the highest, accounting for 50% of the total network traffic. Over freedom will show the ugliness of human nature. BitTorrent was soon flooded with pirated, pornographic, violent and other illegal videos and texts, which made governments all over the world headache. In 2010, Swedish Pirate Bay, the world’s largest BT website, was forced to close under legal pressure, and its founder was jailed for copyright infringement. In 2014, the fast broadcast of shouting “technical innocence” was also cut off. The development of BitTorrent ushers in a dark moment, and the development of technology seems to be at a low point. However, Nakamoto pointed out the direction for the development of P2P technology. The distributed storage technology is about to combine with the blockchain, ushering in a new development process. < / P > < p > combining blockchain technology earlier, it is SIA cloud storage project that explores distributed storage. The concept of SIA was born in hackmit hacker marathon in 2013 and officially launched in May 2015. Its parent company is nebulous. SIA has four core developers, a community manager and an operations manager. SIA founder David vorick. < / P > < p > SIA cloud storage project ensures that users can use blockchain cloud storage services safely, quickly and cheaply without any third-party storage service providers through encryption technology, smart contract technology and redundancy technology. SIA adopts the pow consensus mechanism. The goal of the project is to concentrate the idle storage resources scattered around the world, and provide solutions for the storage needs that need to emphasize personal privacy. After the birth of SIA, there were two rounds of financing, totaling 2.25 million US dollars. The investors included distributed capital and Li Xiaolai. What makes SIA’s development difficult is its upper economic model. There is no limit to the total supply of its token SC, all SC must be mined out through mining. The reward for the first block is 300000 SC. Over time, the rewards for each block will gradually decrease until around January 2023, when each block reaches 30000 SC. This means that SC, unlike bitcoin, is an inflationary digital currency. As of June 2020, a total of 45 billion siacoins have been produced, and 1.57 billion siacoins will be produced every year, with no upper limit. < / P > < p > in addition to SIA, the distributed storage projects combined with blockchain also include storj, Oracle BLZ and burrt based on Ethereum. < p > < p > in May 2014, Juan benet, a computer scientist from Mexico, and his classmates from Stanford University founded a computer network research and development company, protocol labs. As soon as it was founded, protocol labs joined y-combinator, the top incubator in Silicon Valley. The first product of protocol laboratory is IPFs – “inter planar file system”. IPFs is a kind of distributed storage and transmission protocol of content addressable, versioned and point-to-point hypermedia, which aims to fundamentally change the way information is distributed around the world and around the world. < / P > < p > because IPFs is only a transport protocol with a great vision, protocol labs thinks it is necessary to add a blockchain incentive model in the network to encourage node storage and distribution, and filecoin is born. In August 2017, filecoin raised $257 million in one hour, setting a record for global blockchain early project financing at that time. The financing amount exceeded the star project EOS, which is known as million TPS. Only 10% of the token was sold in this financing, which means that IPFs has not been officially launched, and the market value has reached US $2.57 billion. The feature of IPFs is content-based addressing instead of traditional internet addressing based on HTTP domain name. Based on content addressing, the encrypted hash value of the content itself is used to identify and find the corresponding file fragments, and finally complete the file locally. Its parallel speed is far better than the current data transmission form; file fragmentation storage eliminates redundancy and duplication on the network, saves storage resources and reduces storage costs; at the same time, file fragment redundancy backup ensures that even if some nodes are attacked or data is lost, files can be found from other nodes to ensure data security. < / P > < p > it has been six years since the IPFs protocol was launched in August 2014. Since then, numerous pioneers have built an ecosystem around IPFs. As of August this year, there are nearly 1000000 IPFs global data nodes, including social media, content platform, management platform, search engine, file transmission and other projects. Although it may still be the tip of the iceberg for the global Internet, but The significance of the change is self-evident. With the approaching of the main network launch date of its incentive layer filecoin, IPFs will combine with filecoin to form a more efficient and secure network, upgrade the traditional Internet, and establish infrastructure in the era of data civilization. Yueshang group has become the third social e-commerce service platform listed in China after being gathered in pinduoduo