In depth analysis of the role of “blockchain + Internet of things” in new infrastructure construction

According to the definition of “new infrastructure” by the national development and Reform Commission, the blockchain belongs to the new technology infrastructure, and the Internet of things belongs to the communication network infrastructure. As representatives of the “new infrastructure”, what kind of sparks may be struck between the blockchain and the Internet of things, and what software and hardware support is needed? Now let’s talk about it. < / P > < p > the blockchain has the functions of information internet and value Internet, corresponding to two kinds of application directions of blockchain, and has many integration points with the Internet of things. < / P > < p > blockchain is used in supply chain management, anti-counterfeiting traceability, targeted poverty alleviation, medical and health, food safety, public welfare and social assistance. It mainly reflects the function of blockchain as an information internet. It uses shared account books to record the flow direction of goods, drugs, food and funds outside the blockchain, so that the upstream and downstream, different links can check each other and penetrate the “isolated island” of information To make the whole process manageable. If the information outside the blockchain cannot be true and accurate at the source and writing links, writing into the blockchain only means that the information can not be tampered with, and the authenticity and accuracy of the information are not improved. Therefore, the core problem to be solved in this application direction is how to make the information outside the chain true. As a value Internet, blockchain involves the transfer of assets and risks. The value comes from real-world assets and is linked to the token in the blockchain through economic mechanism. Blockchain plays the role of financial infrastructure, with the advantages of transaction being settlement, clearing automation and intelligence. With the development of digital currency and stable currency of the central bank, the application scenarios of blockchain as value Internet will be more and more abundant. < / P > < p > IOT devices continuously obtain data such as geographical location, temperature and humidity, speed and height from the surrounding areas. The data source of IOT is distorted, and there are two kinds of attack means on the end side. < / P > < p > the first category is to steal the real equipment, tamper with its internal and external connections, so that it can collect wrong data and mistake it as correct data and upload it. < / P > < p > the second category is to steal the secret key of the device, crack the communication and authentication mechanism, and logically impersonate the actual device, or forge the actual non-existent device, and upload the forged data. Accordingly, there are two kinds of anti attack methods. The first category is physical security, such as taking anti disassembly shell and installation measures, which will self destruct or alarm once removed. The second one is to protect sensitive information such as secret key properly through security components and trusted execution environment, especially to make the secret key of each device different. Even if one device is cracked, it will not help to crack another device. < / P > < p > from the point of view of the currently deployed IOT devices, the security protection level of the equipment involving the financial field or national mandatory specifications is higher. The safety protection of consumer equipment is relatively limited, but it is not easy for ordinary people to crack. Therefore, the authenticity and accuracy of IOT data at the source are guaranteed to a certain extent. < / P > < p > Internet of things equipment, as long as the wireless communication module is installed, wireless communication can be realized and become a wireless Internet of things device. The so-called wireless communication module, in essence, will be the main chip of wireless communication, as well as peripheral RF, power supply, shield and other devices, welded on the printed circuit board. < / P > < p > there are two ways to integrate wireless communication modules for IOT devices. The first is MCU design. The whole Internet of things equipment takes MCU as the center, and the wireless communication module only serves as the communication channel of MCU. The second is the “open CPU” design. The wireless communication module opens the necessary software interface to the Internet of things devices, so that the latter’s business processing software can run in the former processor. < / P > < p > no matter what kind of MCU design or “open CPU”, the computing, storage and network connection capabilities of IOT devices will vary greatly with different software and hardware. < / P > < p > first, most IOT devices can run block chain computing such as hash algorithm and public-private key signature operation. At present, arm is the main processor of wireless communication module, and risc-v is developing rapidly. Processors range from single core tens of MHz to eight core 2 GHz, even with GPU. < / P > < p > Second, Internet of things equipment manufacturers choose different devices according to specific application scenarios to achieve different network connectivity capabilities, from sporadic data transmission to continuous high-speed data transmission. For example, the on-board T-box generally uses MCU with medium performance, or 4G module of cat. 4 or cat. 1, instead of GPU. Even if there is no blockchain, IOT data is still going to go to the cloud. The increased traffic on the chain is generally far less than the data on the cloud itself. Moreover, due to the capacity limitation of the blockchain, the IOT data in many cases is a hash digest rather than the original data on the chain, and the increased traffic on the chain is smaller. < / P > < p > Third, the behavior of the wireless communication module is pre programmed and basically deterministic. As long as the module software is designed to automatically initiate online transactions according to specific trigger conditions, can IOT devices participate in digital currency transactions and call smart contracts in the blockchain. For example, unmanned taxis automatically find charging piles to charge. After the driverless taxi finds the charging point, it exchanges information through the data line on the charging plug. The driverless taxi first tells the charging point to charge a degree of electricity, and the charging point feedbacks that it needs to pay B digital currencies to its address XXX. According to the payment requirement of the charging point as the trigger condition, the driverless taxi initiates the transfer transaction of B digital currencies, and then transfers the transaction voucher. The charging point goes to the chain to check whether the account is received, and if so, it will charge the driverless taxi. All of the above can be realized by programming. < / P > < p > Fourth, the storage capacity of different IOT devices varies greatly, from tens of KB to tens of GB. Depending on the storage performance, some IOT data can be saved on IOT devices, and some IOT data can be uploaded to the cloud. On the data chain, a small amount of structured data can be directly written into the blockchain, and most of the data is in the form of hash digest. In the analysis of IOT data, due to the limitation of computing performance on the blockchain, complex analysis is generally not carried out through the smart contract within the blockchain, but mainly under the chain. < / P > < p > firstly, it is in the cloud, especially when the analysis algorithm is complex, and the data upload and data analysis are conducted asynchronously or the time difference is large. The second is edge computing. After the data is collected at the end side of the IOT equipment, the data is transmitted to the edge by using near-field or other local communication methods, and then the analyzed information is put into the cloud at the edge. Finally, if the data does not leave the local Internet of things devices, it is generally combined with federal learning or multi-party secure computing to realize that the data does not go out, but the information can be controlled out. In these data analysis scenarios, the blockchain mainly provides an interface for querying the data on the chain. < / P > < p > based on the above analysis, most Internet of things can run hash algorithm and public-private key signature operation. IOT data is mainly stored on the cloud and local IOT devices. A small amount of structured data can be directly written into the blockchain, and most of the data is chained in the form of hash digest. The security protection measures of Internet of things equipment can guarantee the authenticity and accuracy of data source to a certain extent. Automatic data link reduces human intervention and helps to ensure the real accuracy of data in the link. Through mutual verification, the real accuracy of the data on the Internet of things can be guaranteed to a certain extent. The analysis of IOT data is mainly carried out off the chain, including cloud, edge and IOT device local channels. Blockchain mainly provides an interface for querying data on the chain. As long as the application scenario is well programmable, IOT devices can participate in digital currency transactions and call smart contracts in the blockchain. < / P > < p > < p > a basic requirement of the combination of “blockchain + Internet of things” is to introduce unique ID to IOT devices through module or more complex chip technology, that is, digital identity can not be tampered with at the bottom of hardware. The ID of Internet of things devices is widely used in IOT data recording, cloud, chain and digital currency transaction. In this way, the data storage, transmission and mining and value interaction in the Internet of things can be carried out in a credible way. As a distributed trust infrastructure, the functions of blockchain are mainly reflected in two aspects. First, improve the security and credibility of IOT data, which is applicable to the data existing in the cloud and local IOT devices, as well as a small amount of data written into the blockchain. Second, provide infrastructure for digital currency transactions between IOT devices. < / P > < p > in the near future, the number of Internet of things devices will far exceed the number of mobile Internet devices. Rich economic activities will take place among the Internet of things devices. By introducing the central bank digital currency and stable currency into the Internet of things as payment tools between machines, it is helpful to realize the application scenario of machine economy. < / P > < p > Internet of things data will be far beyond the Internet data, and will become an important part of the data element market. “Blockchain + Internet of things” provides security credibility for IOT data, which will lay a solid foundation for the analysis and utilization of IOT data. < / P > < p > the significance of “blockchain + Internet of things” will be far from limited to certification and traceability. Every progress of digital migration in human society will bring new industrial changes and business opportunities. With the development of e-commerce and social media, people’s behavior in consumption and social occasions has been recorded. With the support of e-payment and AI technology, financial technology wave has emerged. “Blockchain + Internet of things” will bring about no less changes. American companies begin to give up R & D: who should pay for corporate research?