It will take six months to go to Mars and 70000 years to go to the neighboring planet. What kind of energy can help mankind break through the solar system

Ever since the day when human beings saw the sky, they have been dreaming to fly up to see what kind of world it is. Especially after the establishment of modern astronomy and even Astronautics, with the basic ability of space exploration, they are more yearning for other planets. However, when we really launched space exploration, we found that our ability was limited. Currently, Voyager 1 is the farthest out of all the probes launched by human beings, which is only 22.3 billion kilometers away from us. This number may seem like an amazing number, but it is still very far away from neighboring stars, and it will take 70000 to 100000 years to reach it. In space, human probes are slower than turtles. < / P > < p > we don’t have to be too disappointed. Although the current detector is still very slow, we have mastered four ways to achieve more amazing speed. At present, however, these methods are still immature. Once one of them can make a breakthrough, the day we will fly out of the solar system is just around the corner. < / P > < p > although human detectors have begun to use nuclear fission to generate electricity, it is still a concept to use nuclear energy to power the whole rocket. At present, liquid hydrogen is still the most common rocket fuel. In addition, methane and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine are also used. In short, we still rely on chemical reactions to power rockets. As we know, the energy provided by such a reaction is very limited, because its energy source is only the energy difference caused by the recombination of chemical bonds. And 99.95% of the energy of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. If we can use this energy, it will greatly increase the speed of the rocket. Yes, that’s nuclear reaction. < p > < p > according to Einstein’s mass energy equation, the energy released by the reaction of 1 kg of chemical substance is about 1 mg mass. If the uranium is fission by neutron bombardment, the energy equivalent to 955 mg mass can be obtained, which is almost 1000 times of that of chemical fuel. If you think about the difference between power and power, it’s easier to understand the huge gap between them. < / P > < p > this is just fission. If we can use nuclear fusion to provide energy, then the rocket can get more power. Think about it, nuclear fusion is the basic principle of hydrogen bomb! If it’s a kilogram of hydrogen fusion into helium, then we get energy equivalent to 7.5 grams of mass, very amazing! If we can use the principle of nuclear fusion to accelerate the rocket, the acceleration time it can obtain will be far longer than all the fuel available now, which will allow us to reach neighboring star in hundreds or even decades. However, at present, our nuclear fusion is not mature and can not realize controllable nuclear fusion reaction, which is also a difficult problem that countries all over the world are trying to overcome. Not long ago, the media just reported that the construction of the first nuclear fusion reactor of mankind has started, which is expected to be completed in 2025. However, such a huge reactor must not be used in rockets. As for when Rockets will be able to use small nuclear fusion reactors, it is not known at present. Some people think that it will be until 2100. The energy conversion rate of antimatter is much higher than that of nuclear fusion. Or we can exaggerate: for antimatter, there is no energy conversion rate, because its principle is to convert all matter into energy, conversion rate of 100%. < / P > < p > the principle of antimatter is very simple. A pair of opposite substances together will annihilate and become energy completely. Only one gram of antimatter and the equivalent amount of matter completely annihilated will produce 1.8 × 10 ^ 14 joules of energy, equivalent to three Hiroshima, which shows how powerful it is. If we can use this energy on a rocket, the thrust generated will be quite amazing. However, our understanding of antimatter is still relatively limited, and we can not really use antimatter in practice at present. The main difficulties lie in three aspects: < / P > < p > how to create stable and neutral antimatter; how to separate antimatter from normal matter to realize accurate and long-term control; mass production of antimatter to make it possible It can be used by human beings in practice. At present, the first two problems have been solved to a certain extent. < / P > < p > in the antimatter factory of CERN, scientists have tried to combine antiprotons with positrons to successfully produce antiatoms, achieving a historic breakthrough. At the same time, they can use the magnetic field and electric field to confine the prepared antimatter away from the ordinary matter, making it stable for about an hour. < / P > < p > at present, the only thing we can’t overcome is mass production of antimatter. People have been joking that antimatter is the most expensive substance in the world, and it takes at least hundreds of billions of dollars to produce one gram. If one day we achieve mass production of antimatter, then we will be more comfortable with the preservation of antimatter. So, the antimatter rocket will not be too far away, and it will help us explore the universe with an astonishing amount of thrust. Compared with antimatter, dark matter is more mysterious. At present, no one knows what dark matter is, only that it accounts for about 85% of the mass of the universe. < / P > < p > some people think that dark matter is also a kind of boson in nature, and there is one thing very special: it is its own antimatter. They believe that although the probability is not high, in very few cases, they will annihilate among themselves, thus providing a lot of energy to power the rocket. < / P > < p > in the universe, many distant galaxy centers have amazing gamma ray bursts. Different scientists have different opinions on the sources of these gamma rays. Some of them analyze according to the theory we mentioned just now, and think that the powerful energy comes from the annihilation of dark matter. If we use it in rockets, we can also achieve a leap in speed. At the same time, since dark matter can be seen everywhere in the galaxy, we don’t need to replenish energy. We can use local materials to accelerate continuously. Moreover, if we can really carry no fuel, then human space exploration will become more “impossible”. The rocket can accelerate infinitely without exceeding the speed of light, which greatly expands the scope of our exploration. < / P > < p > however, this idea is still only an idea. It first depends on the properties of dark matter and must satisfy the conjecture mentioned above. If it turns out that dark matter doesn’t have this property, then all of that doesn’t make sense. Even if we have one day proved that dark matter has such a property, we still need to solve some other problems, such as: < / P > < p > the concept of solar sail was proposed hundreds of years ago. After seeing comets, Kepler, a famous astrophysicist, found that the sun has a force to make comet tail swing to a certain side, which can help human tools to travel through space. < / P > < p > a few years ago, Hawking, a famous physicist, once strongly supported the breakthrough star shooting project, which is also based on the solar sail, hoping to achieve the amazing speed of reaching the neighboring star in 20 years. According to reports, it can even make the detector up to 20% of the speed of light or even faster. < / P > < p > now we know that the power source of solar sails comes from a force called light pressure. Because the sun doesn’t break off, the sail can continue to fly. In order to get more thrust, solar sails must be large enough, even hundreds or even thousands of meters in diameter. Fortunately, the celestial bodies in the universe are very far away, so there is no need to worry about what objects the solar sail will hit. At present, countries all over the world are trying to develop solar sails. For example, at the beginning of this year, China’s tianfan-1 successfully launched, but there is still a long way to go before it can be used. In addition, the American planetary society’s guangfan 2 was launched in June last year, and relevant experiments are also being carried out. The difficulty of solar sail lies in how to make such a huge sail and how to realize its operation by effective folding and unfolding means. It can’t carry people yet, because the strong acceleration will make the human body collapse. In addition, how the solar sail slows down after accelerating to near the speed of light is also a problem. At the same time, we also have to have more advanced materials, make it thinner, in order to get lighter mass to achieve greater speed. Currently, graphene is the best choice. However, it is still unknown when graphene can be widely and mass produced and flexibly applied. The dream of mankind is the stars and the sea. We want to be able to get out of the solar system and have a look at the universe outside. For today’s human beings, it’s only half a year to go to Mars so close. But I believe that with the continuous breakthrough of human science and technology, we can really go to neighboring star to have a look. At present, it seems that nuclear fusion power and solar sail are likely to be realized first. As for whether more innovative technologies will emerge in the future, it is not clear. If humans can really get out of the solar system, which celestial body would you like to visit first? Video Number assistant internal test online! Four functions let you send 1g video on the computer