Saturn, the jewel of the solar system

Saturn is the sixth planet from near to far from the sun and the second largest planet in the solar system. With thousands of beautiful rings, Saturn is unique among the planets. It’s not the only planet with rings, but no ring is as complex and spectacular as Saturn’s rings. Like Jupiter, which is also a gas giant planet, Saturn is a giant sphere made up mostly of hydrogen and helium. < p > < p > NASA’s Cassini probe has been in Saturn for more than 13 years, and with the end of its fate, it has made a final farewell to the Saturn System – it opened the shutter of a wide-angle camera and captured this last complete picture of Saturn’s rings. Two days later, it plummeted into the arms of Saturn’s atmosphere. < / P > < p > on July 19, 2013, NASA’s Cassini probe slipped into the shadow of Saturn and turned to photograph the planet, its seven moons, its inner rings, and our home earth in the background. < / P > < p > in this false color image taken by NASA’s Cassini probe, the whirlpool of Saturn’s Arctic storm is like a huge crimson rose surrounded by verdant foliage. By measuring, the eye of the storm was an astonishing 1250 miles in diameter and cloud speed was 330 miles per hour. < p > < p > since the birth of the solar system, Saturn has experienced countless alternations of day and night. This time, Cassini, an emissary from the earth and our loyal robot explorer, witnessed and captured a change of dawn and dusk at close range for the first time. < / P > < p > these two images of Saturn show not only a small area around the center of a hurricane like vortex, but also the entire Antarctic region. < / P > < p > Saturn has 53 known moons and 29 are waiting to be confirmed – a total of 82. On July 29, 2011, Cassini captured five of Saturn’s moons with a narrow angle camera. < / P > < p > there are few space missions to visit Saturn. Pioneer 11, Voyager 1 and 2 flew over Saturn, while Cassini made 294 flights around Saturn from 2004 to 2017. < / P > < p > this is actually an illusion: when Saturn’s rings are facing the earth on the edge, they are almost invisible from the earth’s perspective, and only vaguely visible through powerful telescopes. < / P > < p > this is one of nature’s most dramatic tricks – “now you see it, now you can’t see it again,” NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn, with its ring edge toward Earth. Saturn is probably the most representative planet in our solar system. It is abundant in popular culture and provides the background for many science fiction stories, movies and TV series, comics and video games, including,,,, and. In Tim Burton’s film, a dusty, fictional Saturn is covered with giant sand worms. In the 2014 movie, wormholes that allow astronauts to go to another galaxy appear near Saturn. Surrounded by more than 60 known moons, Saturn is home to some of the most fascinating Idylls in the solar system. From the plume of water from the silvery moon Enceladus to the methane lake on Titan, which is a cloud locked cage, many scientific discoveries have come from the Saturn system, where many mysteries remain unsolved. < / P > < p > this poster shows images taken by the landing imager / spectroradiometer of the European Space Agency Huygens probe at five different altitudes on Titan’s surface in four main directions. < p > < p > Saturn is the farthest planet from the Earth found by human eyes, and has been known since ancient times. The planet is named “Saturn” after Satun, the Roman god of agriculture and wealth, and the father of Jupiter, the king of the gods. The radius of Saturn is 36183.7 miles, nine times wider than the earth. If the earth is only the size of a nickel, Saturn is about the size of a volleyball. The mean distance between Saturn and the sun is less than 8.8 million miles. It takes 80 minutes for sunlight to travel from the sun to Saturn. A Saturn day is the second shortest “day” in the solar system. A day on Saturn has 10.7 hours, and a year on Saturn is about 29.4 Earth years. The axis of Saturn is tilted 26.73 degrees relative to its orbit around the sun, which is close to earth’s 23.5 degrees. This means that, like earth, Saturn experiences seasons. < / P > < p > like Jupiter, Saturn is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. At the center of Saturn is a dense core of metals such as iron and nickel, surrounded by rocks and other compounds that solidify at high temperatures and pressures. It is surrounded by liquid metal hydrogen in a layer of liquid hydrogen similar to Jupiter’s core, but much smaller than the latter. < / P > < p > hard to imagine, Saturn is the only planet in our solar system whose average density is lower than water – give me a bathtub and I can float Jupiter. < p > < p > Saturn was formed with the rest of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago, when gravity pulled spinning gas and dust in to form the gas giant. About four billion years ago, Saturn settled in the outer, and present-day, position of the solar system, where it became the sixth planet in the solar system from far to near. It’s made up mainly of helium, like Jupiter, and the sun. < / P > < p > as a gas giant planet, Saturn has no real surface. The planet consists mainly of gases and liquids that rotate deeper. There is no place for the spacecraft to settle down on Saturn, and it is impossible for the spacecraft to pass safely. The extreme heat and pressure inside Saturn can crush, melt and vaporize the spacecraft trying to fly in. < / P > < p > this series of images from Cassini shows the development of giant storms that erupt every 30 years on Saturn. The wind speed in the upper atmosphere of Saturn’s equatorial region reaches 1600 feet per second. The strongest hurricane on earth has a peak speed of 360 feet per second. The pressure here – the pressure you feel when you dive deep underwater – is strong enough to squeeze gas into a liquid. The north pole of Saturn has an interesting atmospheric feature – a hexagonal jet. The hexagon was first found in Voyager one images, and Cassini has observed it more closely since. The hexagon is a wavy jet stream, about 20000 miles in diameter, with a huge rotating storm in the center, with wind speeds of 200 miles per hour. There is no place in the solar system that has the same weather characteristics. The magnetic field of Saturn is smaller than that of Jupiter, but it is still 578 times stronger than that of earth. Saturn, its rings and many moons are completely enclosed in Saturn’s giant magnetosphere, where the behavior of charged particles is more affected by Saturn’s magnetic field than by the solar wind. < p > < p > Cassini discovered the radiation belt, the current between Saturn and D ring; complex organic matter fell from Saturn’s ring; charged inner ring particles moved along the magnetic field line; the tiny tilt angle of Saturn’s magnetic field was measured at close range. Image source: NASA / JPL Caltech < / P > < p > aurora are produced when charged particles spin along magnetic lines into the planetary atmosphere. On earth, these charged particles come from the solar wind, and Cassini shows that at least part of Saturn’s aurora is similar to Jupiter’s aurora and is basically unaffected by solar wind. These auroras are produced by particles ejected from Saturn’s moons and the high rotational speed of Saturn’s magnetic field. However, this “non solar origin” Aurora has not been fully understood. < / P > < p > it is speculated that Saturn’s rings may be fragments of comets, asteroids or broken moons, which are torn apart by Saturn’s strong gravity and disintegrated before reaching Saturn. Saturn’s rings are made up of billions of small pieces of ice and rock covered with particles of other matter such as dust, which are as small as dust, as big as houses, and several as big as mountains. If you look at these rings from the top of Saturn’s clouds, most of them look white, and interestingly, each ring moves around Saturn at a different speed. < / P > < p > Saturn’s ring system extends 175000 miles from Saturn, and the vertical thickness of the main ring is usually about 30 feet. The rings are named alphabetically in the order in which they were found, except for the Cassini suture that separates rings a and B, which are closer to each other. Ring a, ring B and ring C are the main rings, while rings D, e, F and G are relatively dark and found later. < / P > < p > starting from Saturn, the outward sequence is D ring, C ring, b ring, Cassini gap, a ring, F ring, G ring, and finally E ring. Further away, there is a very dim Phoebe ring in the orbit of Triton. < / P > < p > Saturn is home to a group of interesting and unique planets. From the misty Titan to the cratered Titan, each of Saturn’s moons tells another story about the system around Saturn. Currently, Saturn has 53 confirmed satellites and 29 temporary satellites waiting to be confirmed. Titan and Saturn have little in common, but their hazy appearance is one of their common features. Although they look very similar in this photo, the star is not a cover. < / P > < p > as we know, Saturn’s environment is not conducive to life. The temperature, pressure and the planet’s signature composition are too extreme and unstable for organisms. < / P > < p > although Saturn is an unlikely place for life, many of its moons are not. Satellites like Enceladus and Titan with internal oceans may be able to support life. Continue ReadingDeveloped a “plug and play” solar power generation scheme, and “5B” won a $12 million round a financing

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