True quantum hegemony! China’s prototype of quantum computing came out, 10 billion times more than that of Google

According to a report from the University of science and technology of China on December 4, a research team composed of Pan Jianwei and Lu Chaoyang, together with Shanghai Institute of Microsystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Research Center for parallel computer engineering technology, has built a prototype of 76 photons “nine chapters”, realizing the fast solution of the “Gaussian boson sampling” task with practical prospects. According to the existing theory, the quantum computing system can process Gaussian boson sampling 100 trillion times faster than the fastest supercomputer. Equivalently, it is 10 billion times faster than the 53 superconducting bit quantum computing prototype that Google released last year. This achievement makes China successfully reach the first milestone of quantum computing research: the superiority of quantum computing. The related papers were published online in international academic journals on December 4. < / P > < p > Picture 1: schematic diagram of the optical path system of the “nine chapters” quantum computing prototype: the upper left laser system generates peak power femtosecond pulses; the 25 light sources on the left generate 50 channels of single-mode squeezed states through the parametric down conversion process, and input them into the right 100 mode optical quantum interference network; Finally, 100 high-efficiency superconducting single photon detectors are used to detect the output photon states of the interferometer. In principle, quantum computer has super fast parallel computing ability, and it is expected to accelerate exponentially compared with classical computer in some problems of great social and economic value through specific algorithms. At present, the development of quantum computer has become one of the biggest challenges of the world’s scientific and technological frontier, and has become the focus of competition among developed countries in Europe and the United States. For the research of quantum computer, the international peers in this field have recognized that there are three development stages of indicators: < / P > < p > 1. The development of high-precision special quantum computers with 50-100 qubits can achieve efficient solutions to some specific problems of high complexity that supercomputers can’t solve, and realize the milestone of “quantum computing superiority” in computing science. Secondly, through the accurate preparation, manipulation and detection of large-scale multi-body quantum system, we have developed a quantum simulator that can manipulate hundreds of quantum bits coherently, which can be used to solve some problems that supercomputers are not competent for. Third, by accumulating various technologies developed in the development of special quantum computing and simulation machines, we can improve the manipulation accuracy of quantum bits, make them reach the critical fault-tolerant threshold of quantum computing, greatly increase the number of integrated quantum bits, realize fault-tolerant quantum logic gates, and develop a general-purpose programmable quantum computing prototype. Pan Jianwei’s team has been in the international leading level in the field of optical quantum information processing. In 2017, the team built the world’s first quantum computing prototype beyond the early classic computer. In 2019, the team further developed the world’s highest performance single photon source with deterministic polarization, high purity, high homogeneity and high efficiency, realized Bose sampling of 20 photon input 60 mode interference circuit, and the output complexity was equivalent to 48 qubits of Hilbert state space, approaching the “superiority of quantum computing”. < / P > < p > Picture 2: optical quantum interference picture: the input optical part is at the bottom left, and the phase-locked optical path is at the bottom right. A total of 100 optical modes are output from the upper part, which are respectively connected with 100 superconducting single-photon detector through low loss single-mode fiber. < / P > < p > recently, the team has independently developed a quantum light source with high efficiency, high homogeneity, extremely high brightness and large-scale expansion ability, and at the same time, it can meet the 100 mode interference circuit with phase stability, fully connected random matrix, wave packet coincidence degree better than 99.5%, and pass rate better than 98%, with phase locking accuracy within 10-9 relative optical path, and high efficiency 100 channel superconducting nanowire single photon Detector, successfully constructed 76 photons and 100 modes of Gaussian Bose sampling quantum computing prototype “nine chapters”. < / P > < p > picture 3: 100 mode phase stabilized interferometer: the optical quantum interference device is integrated on a 20 cm * 20 cm ultra-low expansion stable substrate glass, which is used to realize pairwise interference between 50 single-mode squeezed states and lock the phase between any two beams with high precision. < / P > < p > according to the current optimal classical algorithm, “nine chapters” can process Gaussian boson sampling by 100 trillion times faster than Fuyue, the world’s No. 1 supercomputer, and equivalent to 10 billion times faster than the 53 bit quantum computing prototype “Platanus” released by Google last year. At the same time, the superiority of quantum computing proved by Gaussian Bose sampling does not depend on the number of samples, which overcomes the loophole that quantum superiority depends on the number of samples in Google’s 53 bit random circuit sampling experiment. The output quantum state space scale of “nine chapters” reaches 1030. This achievement firmly establishes China’s position as the first square array in international quantum computing research, and lays a technical foundation for the realization of a large-scale quantum simulator that can solve major practical problems in the future. In addition, the Gaussian Bose sampling algorithm based on the “nine chapters” quantum computing prototype has potential applications in graph theory, machine learning, quantum chemistry and other fields, and will be an important direction of future development. The reviewers of the magazine rated the work as “a state-of-the-art experiment” and “a major achievement”. The researchers hope that this work can stimulate more work on the simulation of classical algorithms, and it is expected that there will be room for improvement in the future. Quantum superiority experiment is not an easy task, but a competition between faster classical algorithms and the continuous improvement of quantum computing hardware. But ultimately, quantum parallelism will produce computing power that classical computers can’t match. < / P > < p > once teenagers can take charge of their own affairs. Each of them has his own choice. Some continue to climb the ivory tower, some carry bags and set foot on the road to find poems. Some wear “flame blue” and practice “loyalty to the party, strict discipline, going through fire and water, and dedicated to the people”… This “blue friend” version of MV is a group of hot-blooded “Teenagers” of Tonghua fire rescue detachment ”The real daily training, fire fighting, rescue, life, learning experience into the song situation. This group of teenagers love to laugh, make noise, sing, dance, magic and play guitar. In the training, they are rigorous, hardworking and hardworking, just to be able to stand up and protect everyone’s safety when they are most in need. Video Number assistant internal test online! Four functions let you send 1g video on the computer