Watching the four GAFA Giants: no Pepsi in McDonald’s, is it illegal for the platform to exclude others?

It is precisely because the hardware, including CPU, is controlled by itself, the cooperation among the system, software and hardware can be so good, and finally achieve “smooth and smooth”. < / P > < p > what we can’t help but mention is the information disclosure, personal privacy protection, APP rights and other issues that we all pay close attention to. These reasons are much better in IOS and MAC ox because of the ecological closeness. Apple does not open permissions to apps, and openness is the exception. < / P > < p > in 2013, Facebook found a short video sharing app “vine” on its own Facebook platform, which has a strong momentum, and is likely to replace itself as another popular social platform. < / P > < p > at this time, vine has been acquired by twitter, Facebook and twitter are both advertising food, pure direct competitors! < / P > < p > nest is Google’s smart home hardware product. Google uses it to build an intelligent ecosystem with voice assistant Google assistant. < p > < p > in 2012, Alibaba and Acer jointly planned to launch a mobile phone running the “alicloud” system. It is said that this is also a deep customization system based on Android. < / P > < p > so, in the same market, if competitors come to the door and use their own resources and competition, can they refuse or exclude them? In the market economy, the transaction must be voluntary first. It has both the right to trade and the right to refuse to trade with the other party. It can not be forced to sell or buy; secondly, it must conform to the recognized business ethics and industry practice. < / P > < p > Google went to talk to Apple about money and spent money to buy the status of default search in Safari browser. The money has been increasing year by year, and now it is $12 billion. < p > < p > in 2019, Apple’s total revenue is $260 billion, and only a safari default search accounts for 4.6%, which can be said to be very valuable. < / P > < p > the fourth type of exclusive behavior of Internet giants involves multiple related markets. They use their strong position in market a to implement exclusion in market B. < p > < p > Google takes advantage of its dominant position in the mobile phone operating system to exclude its competitors in the mobile search market, which hinders the competition in the mobile search market. The fourth category is the only one that may have problems. Manufacturers take advantage of their strong position in market a to implement exclusion in market B, which hinders the competition in market B. < / P > < p > may lead to price rise, may lead to the increase of entry barriers, may lead to the reduction of product diversity, may be caused by the weakening of innovation motivation. < / P > < p > the second example is that not long ago, the local telephone network and long-distance telephone network in the United States were at & T, and then a MCI company relying on microwave communication technology also operated long-distance calls. < / P > < p > the long-distance call of MCI needs to be connected with the local telephone of users, but at & T is torturing MCI, just does not want to be connected. Because of the connection of MCI, at & t lost its own long-distance telephone service. < / P > < p > it is a geographical constraint that the bridge can not be rebuilt; the cost factor is that the local telephone network can not be rebuilt. One is that it is too large; the other is that if MCI builds a nationwide local telephone network, each family has two telephone lines, it would be ridiculous < / P > < p > come back to GAFA 4 giants. Although the share of large platforms is very high, it is still a big question whether they can be identified as key facilities. At the end of the report, the report recommends that Congress amend the definition of “critical facilities” or directly stipulate that market dominant platforms must provide access to basic services on a non discriminatory basis. < / P > < p > in the absence of more factual evidence, the information provided in the current Senate report alone cannot determine the consequences of the exclusive behavior of the four giants, which is even further away from the prohibition. < / P > < p > the same behavior has different consequences in different scenarios, and requires different supervision, that is, “differentiated supervision”, which should be the normal state of antitrust and industry regulation. Baidu continues to work on quantum computing to lay a solid foundation for new infrastructure construction

Author: zmhuaxia