What is the fastest artificial object, what are the breakthrough points in the future, and what is the progress?

It depends on how to understand the relationship between speed and speed. There are many things with the fastest speed in modern times. For example, the fastest thing that our people are proud of is “say Cao Cao Cao Cao”. Cao Cao was a figure in the Three Kingdoms period. He has been dead for 1800 years. The gap between yin and yang can be said to come from the past. How fast do you think it is? < / P > < p > in 2018, the team of Caltech and the National Security Institute of France developed the world’s fastest camera, refreshing the 5 trillion frames per second shooting speed set by the Swedish scientific team, and created 10 trillion frames per second shooting speed. < / P > < p > what is this concept? The speed of light is 300000 kilometers per second, which is considered the fastest speed limit in the world. But this kind of camera can take 100000 frames of light in a one second path, that is, one photo is taken for every 10um of light. What is 10um? It’s 1 / 100 mm. Is the speed of < / P > < p > fast? Just a few decades ago, people often argued because something fast could not be distinguished. For example, when a swimmer or a race reached the end, some competitors were less than 1 μ s, and it was difficult to tell the winner. If you use the current technology, 10 million photos have been taken in 1 microsecond. Even if the distance between the competitors is only 1 ns, it is very clear that they can be distinguished, because in 1 ns time, the femtosecond camera has 10000 pictures were taken. < / P > < p > therefore, even objects that escape at the speed of light are clearly visible in this kind of camera, and there is no escape. This technology is called femtosecond technology. We know that 1FS is 10 million billionths of a second. Now this technology has not reached the real speed of 1fs1 frame, but only 100 femtosecond can take one frame. But the camera has been able to capture the nanoscale interactions between light and matter, and has played an important role in exploring the world’s finest structures. < / P > < p > this research is still under the promotion of scientists all over the world, and it is expected that in the foreseeable future, the femtosecond technology of shooting one picture per femtosecond will be realized. At that time, under this kind of eye-catching eyes, any demon and ghost can not escape, and many phenomena can be solved. < / P > < p > if we want to talk about the speed of man-made objects, of course, the fastest is space probes. We know that on earth, the speed of any object will not exceed 7.9 kilometers per second, because this speed is the first cosmic speed. If the speed reaches this speed, the earth will not be able to keep it, and it will become an artificial satellite flying around the earth. It’s only when they slow down that they’re pulled down by gravity. < / P > < p > the first cosmic velocity can not escape from the gravitational circle of the earth, and it will not be pulled down by the gravity of the earth, so it is called the encircling velocity. All Sputnik launches must reach this speed, and then perform different speeds according to the operating altitude. To get out of the gravity of the earth, you have to reach a second cosmic velocity of 11.2 kilometers per second. Detectors flying to other planets must be greater than this speed before they can escape from the gravity of the earth, so it is called the escape speed; and the third cosmic speed is the speed at which the sun’s gravity can escape from the earth’s position, which is 16.7 kilometers per second, referred to as the escape speed. The formulas for calculating the three cosmic velocities are as follows: surround velocity V1 = GM / R; detachment velocity V2 = √; escape velocity V3 = √. Where V1, V2 and V3 are the three cosmic velocity values respectively, G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of the celestial body to escape gravity, and R is the distance between the artificial object and the celestial body’s mass center. In the escape velocity formula, V “is the earth’s escape velocity – Revolution velocity, 42.2-29.8 = 12.4km; V2 is the second cosmic velocity. < / P > < p > according to different target tasks, the designed launch speed of human launched detectors is different. Voyager 1 is flying out of the solar system at a speed of 17 kilometers per second, which is completely free from the sun’s gravity and can fly into deep space. < / P > < p > in fact, the speed of the probe launched by human beings is much faster than that of Voyager 1, and the fastest speed record so far is the solar probe Park launched by NASA in 2018. This detector is the first real star detector of human beings. It has set a record closest to the sun. It is stroking the tiger’s buttocks in the solar corona with high temperature. The purpose is to find out the formation mechanism of solar wind and other mechanisms, and make efforts for human to predict and prevent the solar disaster. < / P > < p > now the park is running at more than 100 kilometers per second, and it’s getting closer to the sun. At present, all kinds of interplanetary probes launched by human beings can reach the speed faster than the third universe, not by launching or with their own fuel, but by the gravitational catapult effect of planets or the sun. The same is true of Parker, which makes itself faster and faster through the gravitational catapult effect of the earth, Venus and the sun. < / P > < p > by December 2024, Parker will reach the closest position to the sun’s surface, which will be only 6 million kilometers away from the sun. According to the principle of conservation of angular momentum, the speed will reach about 200 kilometers per second. This will be the highest speed record created by an artificial celestial body. However, it is unrealistic to fly out of the solar system at the current speed of 100 kilometers per second. Therefore, breaking through the speed bottleneck has always been a major problem in modern science and technology. < / P > < p > the speed of light is the fastest speed in our world. No object can run at the speed of light, let alone exceed the speed of light. This is a rule set by Einstein’s theory of relativity and has become a consensus in the scientific community. Therefore, it is impossible for a spaceship to reach the speed of light by increasing its speed. The vastness of the universe is too big for human beings to run far even if it reaches the speed of light. If the diameter of our galaxy reaches 200000 light-years, the nearest large galaxy Andromeda galaxy has 2.54 million light-years. That is to say, even if we have a spaceship close to the speed of light, it will take us 100000 years to fly out of the galaxy, and it will take millions of years to get to Andromeda. Since it is impossible for matter to move beyond the speed of light, human beings turn their attention to non-material direct motion. In this way, there are several opportunities. One is space-time folding, which is to fold space-time like paper, like a folding fan. In this way, people can cross from one end to the other like an unopened folding fan. It seems that they have not traveled much, but have crossed many light years. In theory, this speed can reach the destination n times faster than the speed of light. < / P > < p > there is also wormhole crossing. Under the action of a large gravitational field, there will be “wormholes” in space-time, just like an insect biting a small hole on a huge piece of paper, and people can cross from one side of the paper to the other side of the paper. If you want to crawl slowly from the paper, it will take 100 light-years to climb to the other side, and this kind of wear only takes a few minutes Or a few hours. How many times faster than the speed of light? Therefore, wormholes are also called space-time tunnels, and their scientific names are Einstein Rosen bridge. < / P > < p > these two ways can reach the destination n times faster than the speed of light, but they are not accelerated by the spacecraft itself, but are realized by the warp engine to achieve space-time folding and crossing or take a shortcut to tunnel to reach the target. How fast should the spacecraft fly? There is no huge time expansion effect, and it does not violate the limit of relativistic light speed fence. The two methods to break through the bottleneck of light speed are theoretically feasible. The theoretical basis is Einstein’s general relativity field theory and space-time bending theory. But it is very difficult to achieve, because the warp engine needs huge energy to fold space-time around the spacecraft, or to manually create and maintain a wormhole, which is unimaginable. Some people have calculated that even if the entire Jupiter mass energy conversion, but also can not drive a small spacecraft to travel far. < / P > < p > one of the plans: NASA released a centennial starship program in the last century. The specific content is to build a 50000 ton star ship within 100 years, using nuclear fusion as power, with a speed of 12% of light, that is 36000 kilometers per second. The Starship will carry humans to the outer solar system in search of new colonies. But now the controlled fusion is still in the experiment, and some people think it will take 50 years before it can be put into commercial operation. The plan was put forward during Clinton’s presidency. Later, the news became less and less. Whether there was any significant progress was not known. < / P > < p > plan 2: in April 2016, Hawking personally launched a project called “breakthrough Star Photography” while he was alive. He cooperated with Russian tycoons to build 1000 micro spaceships. This kind of spaceship uses the light sail as the traction, each light sail pulls a micro spaceship, flies to the neighbor star which is 4.22 light-years away from us. Driven by a high-power laser array, the sail will eventually reach 20% of the speed of light, with the pole of 60000 kilometers per second. It will take more than 20 years to fly to the neighboring star. < / P > < p > the micro spaceship is only the size of a stamp. It is equipped with communication and navigation facilities, high-speed cameras and various detection equipment. After arriving at the neighboring satellite, it takes a glimpse at the speed of 60000 km / s and sends back the detected data and photos. < / P > < p > can an earth mounted laser array reach this speed? All the equipment of the micro spaceship should be manufactured with nanometer precision. Can it be made? Navigation and information transmission are required to be very accurate. Information can be transmitted back at a distance of more than 4 light-years. Can the earth receive it with the weak power of this nano spacecraft? It is hard to predict whether these technical problems can be solved and whether the project will succeed in the end. Hawking has left the human world, so it is not clear whether the plan will continue. Some people think that the plan initiated by Hawking is a big bluff. When he dies, he disappears. I don’t think so. Science has been moving forward in the wonderful ideas of generations of scientists. Even if this plan cannot be realized for the time being, it at least provides an enlightenment for future generations. For thousands of years, people have never realized that light still has speed, thinking that light is filling the world like this. But Galileo, the great pioneer of experimental science, was different from others. He noticed this. He thought that although light is fast, it has speed and can be measured. So he did an experiment in which two assistants stood on two hills one mile away, holding lanterns in their hands, and counting the transmission time of the light by shading the two sides successively. < / P > < p > you should know that it only takes 18.6 millionths of a second for light to travel from one mile to another. In this simple way and with the limitation of eye speed resolution, there is no way to calculate the speed of light. However, the most important revelation that scientists got from the experiment that the speed of light is about 299 M / s has been obtained for many years. < / P > < p > this story tells us that the greatest driving force for human beings to move forward is to be full of curiosity about the world, and to unlock the secrets of the world through constant exploration. The same is true of speed. With the unremitting efforts of generations of scientists, the bottleneck will be broken and human beings will eventually go into the deep space.

Author: zmhuaxia