At 2:56 on July 21, 1969, Armstrong stepped down from Apollo 11 and set foot on the land of the moon, which was the first time in human history to land on the moon. In the 11 years since then, the U.S. government has launched six manned spaceships from Apollo 12 to 17 to explore the moon. A total of 21 astronauts have entered the space, and 12 have successfully landed on the moon! < / P > < p > in addition to the flag and footprints of the United States, humans have also left a special gift to the moon, garbage. According to statistics, all the garbage on the moon may weigh 181 tons on the earth. In addition to NASA astronauts’ Apollo missions from 1969 to 1972, some of the garbage came from the United States, Russia, Japan, India and Europe Unmanned space missions carried out by space agencies. < / P > < p > What’s the garbage left by astronauts on the moon? A golden olive branch, a national flag, several lunar orbiters, a hammer, an eagle feather, etc. These are all left over by astronauts in 1971 when they proved that “the mass of the object has nothing to do with the speed of falling”. In addition, there are 96 bags of human feces. < / P > < p > because we need to know that when astronauts go to the toilet, they should first tie themselves to the space toilet with their seat belts. The super suction of the toilet can help them to liberate smoothly, instead of urine and feces floating into the air because there is no gravity in space. In the early days, the urine was in a plastic container. At that time, astronauts had three different sizes of containers to choose from, but the largest one was always available because of space gravity. Due to the unstable shape and state of feces, associated with odor and bacteria, the technical conditions at that time could not be used, so the plastic fecal collection bag was used, with adhesive at the mouth of the bag for astronauts to stick to their buttocks; the bag contained fingertips, dry / wet paper towels and fungicides; after all the wastes were packaged, the bactericide was crushed outside the bag and mixed with feces, and the whole process was operated manually, which made it more difficult to use High. < / P > < p > during Apollo 11, scientists improved the excretion equipment, because astronauts relied on “a plastic bag tied to their buttocks to collect feces”, which was a disgusting and tedious process. Since Apollo 11, astronauts began to use a new type of “maximum absorption clothing”, which is actually made of super absorbent polymer material Shorts – reinforced diapers. At present, astronauts in the implementation of take-off and landing, the implementation of the mission, are relying on the space suit inside the super diaper. < p > < p > after the astronauts arrived on the moon, because they collected the lunar soil and rock samples, in order to reduce the weight of the return journey, they left the excreta and some unnecessary things on the moon. With the increase of the number of landing in the United States, the number of bags accumulated to 96 bags. < / P > < p > now, these bags are still there, and no one knows what they will look like after 50 years. Some time ago, NASA announced that it would take the feces from the moon back to earth. < / P > < p > why does NASA do this? In fact, it also has a very important relationship with human exploration of Mars in the future, because scientists want to know whether there is still life in these bags. < / P > < p > because about 50% of the mass of feces is made up of bacteria, representing part of more than 1000 microorganisms living in the gut. There is a wonderful ecosystem in every lump of dung. We should know that the earliest life in the world is archaea. The so-called Archaea is the bacteria living in the special ecological environment in ancient times. Its living habits and chemical composition are very special. It is suitable for living in high temperature, high salt and anoxic environment. For more than 3.9 billion years, these bacteria have evolved and produced more life. < / P > < p > and as far as we know, the moon has been barren and lifeless during this time. Scientists want to know whether these bacteria can survive in such extreme environment as the moon. We should know that the moon, unlike the earth, does not have a protective magnetic field, so it cannot be the most powerful and destructive cosmic radiation deflection; it also has no ozone layer that can absorb the sun’s ultraviolet rays. The vacuum surface of the moon is not suitable for life. Because there is no atmosphere, the moon will experience severe temperature fluctuations during the day and at night: the temperature at night can be – 173 ℃ and the temperature during the day can reach 100 ℃, that is, the boiling point of water on the earth’s surface. This will be the most extreme environment for life on earth, and it may also be the most extreme place where life has ever been. < / P > < p > the study of fecal bacteria will understand the potential of humans to contaminate extraterrestrial objects, or even to plant life seeds on them. In order to prepare for future migration to Mars. After simulating, scientists found that bacteria were probably killed by space radiation, but they also thought that there might be special circumstances, because there are also polar bacteria on earth, because they can survive in high temperature, low temperature, high pressure, high acid, high alkali, high salt, high permeability, drought, and high concentration of organic solvents, heavy metals or other toxic substances Environment or high radiation environment. The bacteria in feces may be able to overcome such extreme environment, and then continue to develop to adapt to the lunar environment and build an ecosystem different from the region. So they will become real life on the moon. They will multiply, spread and even evolve on earth. Because the environment in the early days of the earth was also extremely bad, but life continued to evolve in such an environment. < / P > < p > scientists even suggested that if these bacteria could survive on the moon, perhaps the earliest bacteria on earth might have been seeds planted by microbes from another world. NASA scientist Mark lupicella even joked: “now let’s imagine an asteroid speeding by, hitting the moon, and throwing Apollo dung deep into space.”. Can these “seeds” breed life in the wider universe? Maybe. In this case, is it possible that life on earth was sown by the feces of extraterrestrial astronauts? As far as I know, there is no mainstream theory about astronaut diapers, but from a scientific point of view, the whole idea is entirely possible, < / P > < p > even if all the life in the bags dies, these bags are still worth studying. Scientists need to know how tolerant life is in this environment. To find out how long these microbes have lived on the moon, whether they have evolved or adapted to the environment, or whether these life forms have mutated in the early days. Assessing the limits of life is priceless for future trips to Mars. Of course, there will be another kind of situation in which microorganisms will be revived. We need to know that some bacteria will choose to hibernate in extreme environment, and when the environment is suitable for survival and resuscitation, these microorganisms may be dormant on the moon for decades, and may resume their vitality under appropriate conditions. < / P > < p > in order to bring back the feces and carry out other scientific research missions, NASA has launched a new space exploration program, with astronauts on the moon in 2024. And a new space suit has been designed. < / P > < p > if we say that these bacteria really live and multiply on the moon, it means that life may exist on any dead planet, no matter how small the planet is, humans also have the ability to spread earth life in this vast universe. American companies begin to give up R & D: who should pay for corporate research?